A universal programmer is a programmer that can be commonly used by different devices (such as produced by different companies and different architectures). It is a subclass of the programmer\\\'s functional classification, as opposed to a dedicated programmer.
In hardware, the pin driver of the universal programmer adopts an overall structure with various functions. And only new software is needed to support new devices (such as PRESTO from ASIX, GALEP from CONITEC in Germany.and chipProg-40 from PHYTON in the US) It has high flexibility to meet current and future device needs. Generally, each pin of the universal programmer lock base can use as a clock signal, data bus, address bus, a control bus, ground, power line, VCCQ voltage, VPP programming voltage, dedicated bus for pin contact measurement, etc. The driving voltage can adjust from 1.8V to 25.0V.
Another essential feature of the universal programmer is that it has a detection function. Usually, the locking seat is floating, and any IC placed in it will not cause a short circuit or burn out the IC due to the first voltage. When programming and other operations, the universal programmer first uses a unique dedicated bus to detect the contact condition of the pins with a weak signal and operates only when the contact is good.
Compared with ordinary non-universal programmers, the universal programmer has the advantages of convenient function upgrade, universal adapter, and fast speed. At the same time, the universal programmer\\\'s unique detection function effectively prevents losses caused by reversed components, short circuit of some pins, and poor contact.
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