A development board is a circuit board used for embedded system development, including a series of hardware components such as a central processing unit, memory, input devices, output devices, data channels/buses, and external resource interfaces. In the process of general embedded system development, the hardware is generally divided into two platforms, one is the development platform (host), and the other is the target platform (the development board). The development platform described here refers to the use of a computer to connect to the target platform through a transmission interface, such as a serial port (RS-232), USB, parallel port, or network (Ethernet).
The embedded system developer generally customizes the development boards according to the development needs, or it can be researched and designed by the user. The development board is for beginners to understand and learn the hardware and software of the system. At the same time, some development boards also provide an essential integrated development environment and software source code and hardware schematic diagrams. Standard development boards are 51, ARM, FPGA, DSP development boards.
For embedded system development, you must first select the CPU, FPGA, and DSP that meet your development needs and then choose the range of development boards that support the chosen chip according to the selected model of CPU, FPGA, and DSP. Third, the development environment provided by the development board, and the ability and level of technical support is preferred. Finally, consider the development board. In addition to the integrated CPU, FPGA, DSP, etc., it also needs a complete input and output interface, such as keyboard and LCD, program download interface, memory (RAM), FlashROM, power module, etc. At the same time, for the convenience of debugging in the early stage of development, several individual pins, such as JTAG interface, USB and serial port, will be introduced for external debugging modules.
After the hardware and specifications are selected, the next step is to enter the initial system development and establish a development environment. If the embedded operating system used in the project is not developed by itself but purchased from other manufacturers, most of them provide an integrated development environment (IDE) and emulator to allow developers to speed up the entire development process. When you get the operating system that the system manufacturer has transplanted, and you have given sufficient relevant information, you can do the integration action for your target platform.
After the operating system is selected, various development tools used on the development platform, such as compilers and linkers, are usually specified. The compilation parameters that need to be set during development will vary depending on each environment. This part must compile a working image file according to the hardware specifications and instructions, and then burn it to the target platform through the burning tool.
Development boards classification:
1) 51 series MCU:
There are many types of 51 single-chip microcomputers. 8031/8051/8751 are early products of Intel Corporation, while AT89C51 and AT89S52 of ATMEL Corporation are more practical. ATMEL\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s 51 series also has AT89C2051, AT89C1051, and other varieties. These chips are simplified versions based on AT89C51. The chips available in the market are ATMEL\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s 51 and 52 chips, HYUNDAI\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s GMS97 series, WINBOND\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s 78e52, 78e58, 77e58, etc.
2) PIC series MCU:
PIC microcontrollers can be seen across the world from computer peripherals, home appliance control, telecommunications, smart instruments, automotive electronics to financial electronics in a wide range of applications. PIC series microcontrollers are divided into essential series: such as PIC16C5X, suitable for various household appliances with strict cost requirements. Intermediate series: such as PIC12C6XX.which have high performance: such as internal A / D converter, E2PROM data memory, comparator output, PWM output, I2C, and SPI interfaces; PIC intermediate series products are suitable for the design of various high, medium and low-end electronic products. Advanced series, such as PIC17CXX, have rich I / O control functions and can be extended with external EPROM and RAM, suitable for use in high- and mid-range electronic equipment.
3) AVR series MCU:
AVR microcontroller is an enhanced RISC (Reduced Instruction Set CPU) reduced instruction set high-speed 8-bit microcontroller developed by ATMEL in 1997. AVR\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s single-chip microcomputer can be widely used in various fields such as external computer equipment, industrial real-time control, instrumentation, communication equipment, household appliances, and so on.
4) ARM development board:
ARM9 development board
The ARM development board is an embedded development version of the ARM core chip, including ARM7, ARM9, ARM11, Cortex-M, Cortex-A, Cortex-R three series of cores, the development board is mainly characterized by fast speed, library The files are unified and conducive to development. Including ATMEL, NXP, ST, Freescale and other chips have launched chips based on the ARM core, and the corresponding development board.
CPLD / FPGA:
CPLD (Complex Programmable Logic Device) sophisticated programmable logic device is a device developed from PAL and GAL devices. It is relatively large in scale and complex in structure and belongs to the scope of large-scale integrated circuits. It is a digital integrated circuit where users construct logic functions according to their needs. The primary design method is to use the integrated development software platform to generate corresponding target files by using schematic diagrams and hardware description languages and then transfer the code to the target chip through a download cable ("in-system" programming) to realize the designed digital system.
Many companies today have developed CPLD programmable logic devices. The most typical ones are the products of three major authoritative companies in the world: Altera, Lattice, and Xilinx. Here are standard chips: Altera EPM7128S (PLCC84), Lattice LC4128V (TQFP100), Xilinx XC95108 (PLCC84)
FPGA is the abbreviation of the English Field-Programmable Gate Array, which is a field-programmable gate array. It is the product of further development based on programmable devices such as PAL, GAL, CPLD. It appears as a semi-custom circuit in the field of application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC), which not only solves the shortcomings of custom circuits but also overcomes the shortcomings of the limited number of gate circuits of the first programmable devices.
There are many kinds of FPGA, including the XC series of XILINX, TPC series of TI company, FIEX series of ALTERA company, and so on.
DSP (digital signal processor) is a unique microprocessor that uses digital signals to process large amounts of information. Its working principle is to receive analog signals, convert them into digital signals of 0 or 1, and then modify, delete, and strengthen the digital signals and interpret the digital data back to analog data or the actual environment format in other system chips. Not only is it programmable, but its real-time running speed can reach tens of millions of complex instruction programs per second, far exceeding the general-purpose microprocessor, and it is an increasingly important computer chip in the digital electronic world. Its powerful data processing capability and high operating speed are the two most commendable features.
The mainstream DSP chips are TI 2000 series, TI 5000 series, TI6000 series, and ADI DSP series of ADI company.
ARM stands for Advanced RISCMachines. It is a general term for a class of microprocessors. ARM is also a well-known company in the microprocessor industry. Technology has the characteristics of high performance, low cost, and energy-saving. Suitable for a variety of fields, such as embedded control, consumer / educational multimedia, DSP, and mobile applications.
The mainstream of ARM is divided into the following categories:
ARM7TDMI applied to Game Boy Advance, Nintendo DS, iPod
ARM9TDMI Armadillo, GP32, GP2X (first core), Tapwave Zodiac (Motorola. MX1); GP2X (second core)
ARM9E Nintendo DS, Nokia-GageConexant 802.11 chips; ST Micro STR91xF,
ARM11 Nokia N93, Zune, Nokia N800, NOKIA E72
Cortex Texas Instruments OMAP3; Broadcomis a user; Luminary Micro  microcontroller family
MIPS is a very popular RISC processor in the world. MIPS means "Microprocessor without interlocked piped stages," and its mechanism is to use software to avoid data-related problems in the pipeline as much as possible.
MIPS was first developed by a research team led by Professor Hennessy of Stanford University in the early 1980s. The R series of MIPS company is the microprocessor of RISC industrial products developed on this basis. These series of products are used by many computer companies to form various workstations and computer systems.
It can be said that MIPS is the best RISC CPU sold. From anywhere, such as Sony, Nintendo game consoles, Cisco routers, and SGI supercomputers, you can see MIPS products on sale. Compared with Intel, the licensing cost of MIPS is relatively low, which is also used by most chip manufacturers except Intel. Since then, MIPS has undergone a strategic change and has begun to focus on embedded systems. It has developed high-performance, low-power 32-bit processor cores (core) MIPS324Kc and high-performance 64-bit processor cores MIPS64 5Kc. In 2000, MIPS released a version for MIPS32 4Kc and a 64-bit MIPS 64 20Kc processor core.
The MIPS32 4KcTM processor is a high-performance, low-voltage 32-bit MIPS RISC core designed explicitly for System-On-a-Chip using MIPS technology.
MIPS 64 20Kc has a strong floating-point capability, which can form different systems, from one processor Octane workstation to 64 processor Origin 2000 server; this CPU is more suitable for graphics workstation use. MIPS \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'latest R12000 chip has been used in SGI servers, and its maximum frequency can reach 400MHz.
MIPS K series microprocessor is one of the most used processors after ARM (MIPS was the most used processor in the world before 1999), and its application fields cover game consoles, routers, laser printers, and handheld computers And other aspects. In addition to the tiny proportion of MIPS applications in mobile phones, it has quite good results in the general digital consumer, network voice, personal entertainment, communications, and business applications markets. And it\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s most widely used should be home audio-visual appliances (including set-top boxes), Netcom products, and automotive electronics.
PowerPC is a central processing unit (CPU) of reduced instruction set (RISC) architecture. Its basic design is derived from IBM (Performance Optimized With Enhanced RISC) of IBM (International Business Machines Corporation); "IBM Connect Newsletter" 2007.8 The monthly issue translates to "Enhancing RISC Performance Optimization") architecture. In the 1990s, IBM (International Business Machines Corporation), Apple (Apple Inc.), and Motorola (Motorola) successfully developed PowerPC chips and manufactured PowerPC-based multiprocessor computers. PowerPC architecture is characterized by good scalability, convenience, and flexibility.
PowerPC processors have a wide range of implementations, ranging from high-end server CPUs such as Power4 to the embedded CPU market (Nintendo Gamecube uses PowerPC). The PowerPC processor has a solid embedded performance because it has excellent performance, lower energy consumption, and lower heat dissipation. Except for integrated I / O like serial and Ethernet controllers, this embedded processor is very different from a "desktop" CPU. For example, the 4xx series PowerPC processors lack floating-point arithmetic and also use a software-controlled TLB for memory management, instead of using reversed page tables as in desktop chips.
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